Endre Sik

Address: 1025 Zoldmali lejto 12/A, Budapest, Hungary,

Born: 05.09.1948 Budapest, Hungary

Current employment:

ELTE, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Minority Studies, 2003 – professor

Social Science Informatics Centre (TARKI), 1990 – project manager


Habilitation (sociology) 2007 ELTE University

DSc (sociology) 2006 Hungarian Academy of Sciences

Ph.D. (sociology) 1985 Hungarian Academy of Sciences

M.A. (economics) 1980 University of Economics, Budapest

M.A. (agricultural sciences) 1974 University of Agriculture, Godollo

International teaching experience:

1990 – Sociology of organisation, University of Toronto

1994 - The Sociology of the Informal Economy, Notre Dame University

1996 - Second Economy in Post-Communism, CEU, Praga

2004, 2005 – Sociology of Migration EIUC, Venice

Recent international research activity:

Migrants in the media (Fundamental Rights Agency (FRA), Wien, 2008

Undeclared work in contemporary Hungary, World Bank, 2007-2008

ENRI-EAST (European identity), EU 7th Framework project, 2007 -

Economic and irregular migration (ARGO, 2005-2006), IOM, Budapest, 2006 -

LOCALMULTIDEM”(Social capital and political mobilisation of migrants) EU 6th Framework project, 2006 -

SOCCOH” EU (Social capital and regional development) 6th Framework project, 2006 -

Social capital and social policy, EU Observatory, 2006 -

WORKCARE” (Flexsecurity and social care) EU 6th Framework project, 2006 -

Labour Market Flexibility and the Households”, EU 5th Framework project, 2000 - 2004

Local Goverment Monitoring and Data Bank”, Open Society Institute, Budapest 1998- 2000

Diaspora-politics in Hungary, in Russia and in the Ukraine”, COLPI, Budapest 1998-2000

Cultural Identity of Hungarian Migrants in Austria”, 1997-2001, European Cultural Foundation, Wien-Budapest

"The Social Costs of Transformation", 1994-1996, Ins. für die Wissenschaft von Menschen, Wien/Austria

"Informal Markets and Black Labour", 1994-1997, ILO, World Bank, Budapest

"Migration Potential", 1993-5, European Community, COST, Brain Drain Project

International boardmembership:

Sage Studies in International Sociology/London, 1992-1994, editor

Innovation/Vienna, 1989-, editor

Refuge/Toronto, 1993-1994, editor


The urban informal economy of Mongolia, UNDP/ILO, 2000

Evaluation of race and xenophobia monitoring in the EU, EUMC, Vienna, 2002

Head of the National Focal Point of EUMC in Hungary, Budapest, 2003-2005

Task force against corruption, Office of the Prime Minister, Hungary, 2002 – 2003

Evaluation of sociological research in Mongolia, Open Society, Ulanbator, 2003

EQUAL Monitoring Committee on Innovation, Ministry of Employment and Labour, Budapest, 2005 –

Task force to reduce unregistered economy, Office of the Prime Minister, Hungary, 2007 -

Membership in academic institutions

Committee of Sociology, IX. Department of The Hungarian Academy of Sciences, 1999-

ESF Household Panel Network ; 1992–95

Hungarian Sociological Association, president 1996 - 1998

Hungarian National Research Fund, Committee of Sociology, president 1998–2002

IMISCOE, 2005-



Swedish Institute, Sweden

3 months


British Council, Nagy-Britania

2 months


Centre for European Studies, Harvard University, USA

1 month


The Helen Kellogg Institute, Notre Dame Univ., USA

4 months


The Hebrew Univ. of Jerusalem, Israel

1 month

The Helen Kellogg Institute, Notre Dame Univ., USA

4 months


NIAS, Wassenaar, Hollandia

2 months


University of Groningen, Hollandia

1 month

Mellon Fellow, Ins. of Human Sciences, Ausztria

6 month


Szechenyi Professor

4 years


EUSSIRF, Florence, Italy

1 month


Hansa Wissenschaftkollege, Delmenhorst, Germany

8 months

International publications:

Allocation du travail en economie socialiste (with Galasi Peter). Economie et Societe 1982, No. 10. pp.1089-1110.

Small is useful” or the Reciprocal Exchange of Labour in Hungary. In: Labour Market and Second Economy in Hungary Eds.: P.Galasi-Gy. Sziraczky  Frankfurt-New York  Campus Verlag, 1985, pp.179-214.

Mercati, scambio di lavoro e stato socialista: il caso ungherese. In: L'altra meta dell'economica Ed.: A.Bagnasco  Liguori Editore 1986 Napoli pp. 246-265.

Second economy, labour exchange and social stratification. In: Economy and society in Hungary Eds.:R.Andorka-L.Bertalan  1986, MKKE Budapest pp. 35-66.

A casual labour market. Angewandte Sozialforschung, 1986/1987., Jahrgang, 14. No. 1. pp.63-71.

Den Informella Ekonomin och Reciprokt Utbyte ar argete i dagens Ungern. In: Tid-Boende-Teknik Ed.:L.Ingelstam Byggforskningsradet, Stockholm, 1987. pp. 93-102.

Foreword: Similarities and Dissimilarities (with Ivan Svetlik). In: The Shift in the Welfare Mix Eds.:A.Evers-H. Wintersberger Eurosocial Vienna, 1988. pp. 273-280.

New Trends in the Hungarian Welfare System (Towards „self-welfarization?”). In:The Shift in the Welfare Mix ...1988, pp. 281-296.

Reciprocal Exchange of Labour: the Hungarian Case. In: On Work 1988 Ed.:Ray Pahl Basil Blackwell, Oxford-N.Y. pp. 527-547, In: Italian In:: Azione Economica Come Azione Sociale ed. Magatti Mauro 1991, FrancoAngeli, Milano, pp. 313-338.

Managers' Reciprocal Transactions (with Agnes Czako) Connections 1988 Vol.XI. No.3. Winter pp. 23-32.

Invisible Incomes (with P. Galasi). Social Justice, 1988.,  Vol. 15., No.3-4., Fall-Winter pp. 160-178.

The „Eternity” of an Institution for Survival Innovation. 1988., Vol.1., No.4-5., pp. 589-624.

Gaps” in the Labour Market Career (with P. Robert). In:: Flexibility and  Rigidity in the Labour Market in Hungary 1989. Eds.: T.D.Horvath  and Gy. Sziraczky, International Institute for Labour Studies, Research Series, No.90, Geneva,  pp. 81-93.

Aus Rumanien  nach Ungarn: Die Siebenbürgen-Flüchtlinge 1987-1989 (With J. Tarjanyi  and T.Zavecz). Journal für Sozialforschung 1990, Vol. 30., No.1., pp. 81-116.

Exchange of Labour in Tiszaigar. In: Acta Ethnographica, 1990., Vol. 36., No. 1-4., pp. 53-82.

Networks to Cope with Crisis (The Case of Transylvanian Refugees in Contemporary Hungary). shorter version. In: Innovation 1991., Vol. 3., No. 4., pp. 729-748, full version. In: Service Social dans le Monde, 1991., No. 3-4., pp. 74-84.

The Vulture and the Calamity or Why were Hungarian Taxi Drivers Able to Rebel Against increased Gasoline Prices? In: Beyond the Great Transformation. Eds.: Toth A.- Gabor L., Budapest Research Review on Social Sciences, 1991., pp. 73-88., and In: Transition to Capitalism? Ed. Kovacs, Janos M., Transaction Publishers, New Brunswick, London, 1994., pp. 275-292.

Transylvanian Refugees in Hungary and the Emergence of Policy Networks to Cope with Crisis. Journal of Refugee Studies, Vol. 5., No. 1., 1992.

The sociological background of price- and quality-sensitiveness. Paper for the Third Annual Conference of the SASE, Stockholm, June, 16-19. 1991.

Loss of Innocence (The sociohistorical aspects of the Hungarian refugee policy) (with Judit Toth). Migration, 1991., No., 11-12., pp.119-132.

The Emigration Potential of Romania  Refuge, Vol. 11., No. 4., May, 1992. pp 11-13.

Why Social Innovations are Needed in Care for the Elderly: The Hungarian Case (with Zsuzsa Szeman). In: New Welfare Mixes in Care for the Elderly Vol 1. EUROSOCIAL Report, 40/1. 1991., pp. 43-58.

Transylvanian Refugees in Hungary. In: Social Report 1990, Eds.: Andorka R.- Kolosi T. - Vukovich Gy., TARKI, 1992 pp. 366-378.

Occupational Attainment of Transylvanian Refugees. In: Hungary (with P. Robert) in: Transformation Processes in Eastern Europe, NWO,SSCW,SRO, The Hague, 1993 pp. 19-46.

From Second Economy to Informal Economy.  shorter version. In: Studies in Public Policy Centre for the Study of Public Policy Univ. of Strathclyde, No. 207., 1992., and In: Journal of Public Policy, 12., 2.,153-175., full version In: Program on Central and Eastern Europe Working Paper Series No.23 Minda de Gunzburg Center for European Studies, Harvard University

From the Multicoloured to the Black-and-White Economy: the Hungarian Second Economy and the Transformation. Journal of Urban and Regional Research. Ed. Roberts, Bryan, 1994, Vol 18. pp. 46-70, and In Back to a Market Economy (eds.) Jozsef Temesi and Erno Zalai, 1999, Akademia, Budapest, pp. 508-543.

Reconversion in the course of migration - Transylvanian Forced Migrants in Hungary. Sociological Review (Szociologiai Szemle), 1994, No.2., pp. 160-170.

Governmental and Non Governmental Refugee Policy in Hungary (with J. Toth). In: The Genesis of a Domestic regime: The Case of Hungary Eds.:H.Adelman-E.Sik-G.Tessenyi Toronto York Lane Press, 1994, pp. 65-72.

The Sociological Characteristics of Refugees (with J. Tarjanyi and T. Zavecz). In: The Genesis of a Domestic Regime: The Case of Hungary. Eds.:H.Adelman-E.Sik-G.Tessenyi, Toronto, York Lane Press, 1994., pp. 25-38.

Formal and Informal Policy Networks to Cope with Crisis (with Szanto, Janos). In: European Transformations: Five Decisive Years at the Turn of the Century. Eds.: Pohoryles, Ronald, Giorgi, Liana et al., Avebury:Aldershot, 1994., pp. 167-188.

Paid and Unpaid Work in Hungary (HHPS 1992). XVth Reunion of the International Association for the Time Use Research, NIMMO, Amsterdam, 1994. pp. 115-126.

Der Arbeitmarkt und die Einkommen im Jahre 1992 in Ungarn (with Kolosi, Tamas). In: Lebenslagen im Umbruch, eds.: Berger, Horst and Habich, Roland, WZB, Working Group Report, P 93-101., 1994., pp. 19-32.

Network capital in Capitalist, Communist and Post-Communist Societies. International Contributions to Labour Studies, 1994., Vol. 4., pp. 73-93.

Measuring the Unregistered Economy. In: Post-Communist Transformation. EUROSOCIAL Report, 1995., No. 52., Vienna, p. 53.

The Role of Network as a Resource in Economic Transactions in a Post-Communism (with Agnes Czako). In: Europe: Central and East, (ed.) Mendell M. and Nielsen, Klaus, Black Rose Books, Montreal, 1995m, pp. 224-247.

Changing Content of Political Xenophobia in Hungary - Is the Growth of Xenophobia Inevitable? (With Csepeli Gyorgy). In: Refugees and Migrants: Hungary at a Crossroads, (eds.) Fullerton, Maryellen, Sik, Endre and Toth, Judit, MTA PTI, Budapest, 1995., pp.121-128.

Intentions to Emigrate and to Work Abroad in Hungary 1993-1994 (with Berencsi Zsuzsa).  In: Refugees and Migrants: Hungary at a Crossroads. (eds.) Fullerton, Maryellen, Sik, Endre and Toth, Judit, MTA PTI, Budapest, 1995., pp.129-140.

Black Labour. In: Labour Market and Economic Transition: Hungary (1986-1995) ILO/Japan Project on Employment Policies for Transition in Hungary, Budapest, February, 1996, pp. 27-32.

Coping Strategies,  in Social Costs of Transition. Working Paper of SOCO, Ferge, Zsuzsa and Endre Sik (eds ), IWM, 1996., Vienna, pp. 218-257.

The Social Consequences of Unemployment in Hungary - A Household Perspective, 1996, Innovation, 9 (September):355-370.

Bezrobocie w Gospodarstvie Domowym - Przyczyna Ubostva na Wegrzech (Unemployment - the main Cause of Poverty in Hungary?), 1996. In: Polityka spoleczna wobec ubostwa (Social Policy Towards Poverty), ed.: Golinowskiej, Stanislawski, IPISS, Warsaw, pp. 132-146.

Prostorni raspored neslubenih trznica I neslubenih stranih trgovaca u suvremenoj Madarskoj, 1997. Financijska Praksa, XXI., Vol. 5-6., Zagreb.

The peculiarities of the Research on the Hidden Economy. In: Hidden Economy in Hungary, HCSO, 1998, Budapest.

Network Capital in Capitalist, Communist and Post-Communist Countries (with Barry Wellman). Networks in the Global Village, Wellman, Barry (ed.), Westview Press, Boulder. 1999, pp. 225-254.

The scope of the state and private sectors (with Tamas Kolosi). In: A Society Transformed, eds.: Rudolf Andorka et al., CEU Press, 1999, Budapest, pp. 73-84.

Some Elements of the Hidden Economy in Hungary Today (with Toth I. Janos). In: Social Report 1998, TARKI, Budapest 1999, pp. 100-122.

Xenophobia and Opinions about the Roma (with Gyorgy Csepeli and Zoltan Fabian). In: Social Report 1998, TARKI, Budapest, 1999., pp. 452-482.

Slave Market” on the Moscow Square. Sociological Review (Szociologiai Szemle), 1999., Special Issue, pp. 115-129.

The Spatial Distribution of Informal Marketplaces and Informal Foreign Traders in Contemporary Hungary. In: Underground Economies in Transition, eds.: Edgar L. Feige and Ott, Katarina, 1999., Ashgate, Aldershot, pp. 275-306.

The level and social basis of xenophobia in contemporary Hungary. In: Authoritarianism and Prejudice – Central European Perspectives, (eds.) Zsolt Enyedi and Ferenc Erős, 1999, Osiris, Budapest, pp. 193-213.

The Development of Open-air Markets in East-Central Europe (with Claire Wallace). International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 1999. December, Vol. 23, No. 4, pp. 697-714.

Characteristics and Origins of the Comecon Open-air Market in Hungary (with Agnes Czako). International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 1999- December, Vol- 23.. No- 4., pp. 715-737. Also in The Small Transformation, eds.: Lengyel Gyorgy and Zsolt Rostovanyi, Akademia, Budapest, 2001, pp. 104-125.

Coping strategies in Central European Countries (with Gerry Remond). In: Poverty in Transition Economies, eds.: Sandra Hutton and Gerry Redmond, 2000, Routledge, London, pp. 266-287.

Diaspora: Tentative Observations and Applicability in Hungary. In: New Diasporas in Hungary, Russia and Ukraine. Eds.: Ilona Kiss and Catherine McGovern, 2000, Open Society/COLPI, Budapest, pp. 20-41.

Hungary (with Judit Toth and Agnes Hars). In: Patterns of Migration in Central Europe, eds. Claire Wallace and Dariusz Stola, Palgrave, London, 2001, pp. 252-276.

Social Development in Hungary (with Istvan Harcsa). In: Central Europe in Transition: Towards EU Membership, Eds.: Gorzelak, Grzegorz, Eva Ehrlich et al., 2001., Scholar, Warsaw, pp. 124-144.

Determinants of Denial and Acceptance of Refugees in Hungary (with Gyorgy Csepeli and Zoltan Fabian). In: Ethnic minorities and Inter-Ethnic Relations in Context, eds.: Karen Phalet and Antal Orkeny, Ashgate, 2001, Aldershot pp. 85-96.

The Bad, the Worse, and the Worst: Guesstimating the Level of Corruption. In: Political Corruption in Transition, eds.: Stephen Kotkin and Andras Sajo, CEU Press, Budapest-New York, 2002., pp. 91-114.

Wages in the informal economy In. The Hungarian Labour Market, eds.: Karoly Fazekas and Jenő Koltay, Institute of Economics, HAS, Budapest, 2002., pp. 98-101.

Hidden economy in Hungary (2002) (with Janos I. Toth) in: The Social Impact of Informal Economies in Eastern Europe. Eds. Neef, Rainer, and Manuela Stanculescu, Ashgate, Aldershot, pp. 219-230.

Informal labour market-place on the Moscow Square (2002) in: The Social Impact of Informal Economies in Eastern Europe. Eds. Neef, Rainer, and Manuela Stanculescu, Ashgate, Aldershot, pp. 231-247.

Country report (with Ildiko Nagy) (2002). HWF Research Report, No. 3., ed.: Claire Wallace, pp. 297-339.

Joining an EU identity: integration of Hungary and the Hungarians (with Judit Toth) (2003). In: Europeanisation, National Identities and Migration, eds.: Willfried Spohn, Anna Triandafyllidou, Routledge, London, pp. 223-244.

How much work flexibility is there in Eastern and Western Europe? (with Claire Wallace) (2003). In: HWF Research Reports, No. 4., Vol..2., ed.: Claire Wallace, HIS, Vienna, pp. 69-108.

Labour market and migration: threat or opportunity (with Agnes Hars and Bori Simonovits) (2004) in: Social Report – 2004 eds.: Kolosi Tamas. Toth Istvan Gyorgy, Vukovich Gyorgy, TARKI, Budapest, pp.261-278.

Is prejudice growing in Hungary? (with Zsolt Enyedi and Zoltan Fabian) (2004) in: Social Report – 2004 eds.: Kolosi Tamas. Toth Istvan Gyorgy, Vukovich Gyorgy, TARKI, Budapest, pp.366-385.

Xenophobia in Hungary in 1998 (2004) in: Hungary and the Hungarian Minorities, ed. Laszlo Szarka, Atlantic Studies on Society in Change No 122. Atlantic, N.Y., pp. 208-222.

The main characteristics and applications of LGMDP (2005) in Spatial Impact of Immigration Ministero della Infrastrutture del Transporti, Rome, pp. 127-141.

Hungary (2005) Mutual learning programme of the European Employment Strategy, Dublin,

Hungary (2005) (Zakarias Ildikoval) POLITIS Project, Country Report,

Path Dependent Problems: Quasi-Diasporic Migration Policy in Contemporary Hungary (2007) In Rethinking Immigration and Integration: A New Centre-Left Agenda Policy Network, pp. 101-111.

Innocence lost – Hungarian Refugee Policy between 1988 and 2004 (2007) in: Balance Sheet Eds.: Magda Kosa Kovacs and Andrea Pető, Napvilag-Tancsics, Budapest, pp. 259-271.

Thirteen Flexible Thoughts on Flexibility (2007) in: The Social Engine – exploring flexibility. Ed. Miklos Erhardt, REINIGUNGSGESELLSCHAFT, Budapest-Weimar, pp. 25-32.

Hungary (2007) (with Andras Kovats) in: European Immigration: A Sourcebook.  Eds.: Anna Triandafyllidou and Ruby Gropas, Ashgate, pp. 155-168.

Hungary (2008) (with Agnes Hars) in: Permanent or circular migration? Eds.: Elmar Honekopp and Heikki Mattila, IOM, pp. 73-108.

HungaryTowards Balanced Tightening of Regulations on Irregular Employment (2008) (with Agnes Hars) in: Addressing the Irregular Employment of Immigrants in the EU. IOM, eds.: Marek Kupiszewski, Heikki Mattila, Budapest. pp.89-126.

Hungary (2009) (with Agnes Hars) in: Statistics and Reality: Concepts and Measurements of Migration in Europe. Eds.: Heintz Fassmann, Ursula Reegers, and Wiebke Siegers. Amsterdam University Press, pp 169-198.